Two dissociable updating processes in working memory

Although pupil dilation has been investigated since the early 1960s (Hess & Polt, ), pupillometry research has experienced an enormous revival in the last two decades.In contrast to the early pioneering work, pupil dilation is relatively easy to study nowadays; eye trackers are relatively cheap and typically provide adequate temporal resolution and precision to detect even relatively small changes in pupil diameter.

Based on a definition of effort as the exertion of resources in the service of instrumental behavior (cf.

Notably, the same reasoning can be applied to interpret effects of physiological signals in response to higher task demands.

Thus, based on mean differences between easy and hard conditions alone it is impossible to decide whether physiological signals reflect mere task demand or effort exertion.

Sections are structured along the three domains of cognitive control identified by Miyake et al.

(), discussing pupil dilation in relation to updating, switching, and inhibition respectively.

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