Sudan mail dating
Together with other countries on Red Sea, Sudan is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru", meaning "God's Land"), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BC.
Northern Sudan's earliest historical record comes from ancient Egyptian sources, which described the land upstream as Kush, or "wretched." For more than two thousand years the Old Kingdom of Egypt (c.2700–2180 BC), had a dominating and significant influence over its southern neighbour, and even afterward, the legacy of Egyptian cultural and religious introductions remained important. Egyptian caravans carried grain to Kush and returned to Aswan with ivory, incense, hides, and carnelian (a stone prized both as jewellery and for arrowheads) for shipment downriver.
Yet there was no attempt to establish a permanent presence in the area until the Middle Kingdom (c.2100–1720 BC), when Egypt constructed a network of forts along the Nile as far south as Samnah in Lower Egypt to guard the flow of gold from mines in Wawat, the area between the First and Second Cataracts.
When Egyptian influence declined or succumbed to foreign domination, the Kushite elite regarded themselves as central powers and believed themselves as idols of Egyptian culture and religion.
Egyptian governors particularly valued gold in Nubia and soldiers in the pharaoh's army.
Egyptian military expeditions penetrated Kush periodically during the Old Kingdom.
As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language (earliest records dating to the eighth century) in an adaptation of the Coptic alphabet).
While Islam was already present in the Sudanese Red Sea coast and the adjacent territories since the 7th century, the Nile Valley did not undergo formal Islamization until the 14th-15th century, following the decline of the Christian kingdoms.