Dating the metta sutta langru
It is ten verses in length and it extols both the virtuous qualities and the meditative development of mettā (Pali), traditionally translated as "loving kindness" "goodwill", underscores that the practice is used to develop wishes for unconditional goodwill towards the object of the wish. In Theravāda Buddhism's Pali Canon, mettā is one of the four "divine abodes" (Pali: brahmavihāra) recommended for cultivating interpersonal harmony and meditative concentration (see, for instance, kammaṭṭhāna).
The other, also chanted by Theravadin Buddhist monks at times, extols the benefits of the practice of mettā (Pali) and it is found in the Anguttara Nikaya (AN 11.15). In later canonical works (such as the Cariyāpiṭaka), mettā is one of ten "perfections" (pāramī) that facilitates the attainment of awakening (Bodhi) and is a prerequisite to attaining Buddhahood.
Each of the four states corresponds to one of the verses of the Four Immeasurables.
This is what should be done By one who is skilled in goodness, And who knows the path of peace: Let them be able and upright, Straightforward and gentle in speech, Humble and not conceited, Contented and easily satisfied, Unburdened with duties and frugal in their ways.
While none of these sources can lead to an incontrovertible conclusion as to this discourse's origins, they allow one to understand analytically some of the strengths and weaknesses of various hypotheses.
The Pali Canon is composed of three "baskets" or collections: discipline (Vinaya Piṭaka), discourses (Sutta Piṭaka), and analysis (Abhidhamma Piṭaka). According to the texts, during the Buddha's lifetime, discourses were memorized and recited with a complete recitation of all recalled discourses occurring soon after his death.
They should wish: In gladness and in safety May all beings be at ease.
Whatever living beings there may be, Whether they are weak or strong, omitting none, The great or the mighty, medium, short or small, The seen and the unseen, Those living near and far away, Those born and to-be-born, May all beings be at ease!
Yassānubhavato yakkhā Neva dessanti bhīsanam Yañhicevānuyuñjanto Yattindiva matandito Sukham supati sutto ca Pāpam kiñci na passati Evamādi guṇūpetam Payittam tan bhaṇāma he Karaniya matthakusalena Yan tam santam padam abhisamecca Sakko uju cha suju cha suvatho thassa mudu anatimani Santussako va subharo va appakicco va sallahukavutti santindriyo va nipako va appagabbho kulesu ananugiddho Na cha khuddam samachare Kiñ ci yena viññuu pare upavadeyyum Sukhino va khemino hontu Sabbe sattaa bhavantu sukhitatta Ye keci panabhut'atthi Tasa va thavara va anavasesa Digha va ye mahanta va Majjhima rassaka anukathula Dittha-va ye va adittha Ye ca dure vasanti avidure Bhuta va sambhavesi va Sabbe satta bhavantu sukhitatta Na paro param nikubbetha Natimaññetha kattha si nam kiñ si vyarosana patighasañña Naññamaññassa dukkham iccheyya Mata yatha niyam puttam Ayusa ekaputtamanurakkhe Evam pi sabbabhutesu Manasam bhavaye aparimanam Mettañ va sabbalokasmim Maanasam bhavaye aparimanam Uddham adho cha tiriyañ va Sambadham averam asapattam Tittham caram nisinno va Sayano va yavat'assa vigatamiddho Etam satim adhittheyya Brahmametam viharam idhamahu Ditthiñ va anupagamma sila va Dassanena sampanno Kamesu vineyya gedham Na hi jatu gabbhaseyyam punare ti ti By virtute of the power of this sutta, the monsters will not be able to do any harm They will not be able to show their hideous voice and bodies He, who does actively recite this sutta during the day or the night, Will be able to sleep peacefully And will have no nightmares O the people of sanity, We shall recite this sutta As it is very powerful This is what should be done by one who is skilled in achieving his own good of peace and tranquility.Let none deceive another, or despise any being in any state, Let none through anger or ill-will wish harm upon another.Even as a mother protects with her life her child, her only child, So with a boundless heart should one cherish all living beings, Radiating kindness over the entire world, Spreading upwards to the skies, and downwards to the depths, Outwards and unbounded, freed from hatred and ill-will.The other three are compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity.Each of these four states has an easily recognized 'far enemy' and an equally insidious 'near enemy'.