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The Choctaw and the United States (US) agreed to nine treaties.By the last three, the US gained vast land cessions; they removed most Choctaw west of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory, sending them on a forced migration far from their homelands.Today the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, and the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians are the federally recognized Choctaw tribes. The Department of Interior has listed the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians as a trustee of Natural Resources in the Southeast Region of the United States.Mississippi also recognizes another band, and smaller Choctaw groups are located in Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas. The National Park Service under the Secretary of Interior has posted public notice of the MOWA Choctaw Indian Reservation in Alabama.Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries.About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs.The American Indian Policy Review Commission Final Report Volume I, Chapter 11, Page 468 on May 19, 1977 federally acknowledged/recognized the existence of the Choctaw Communities of Mobile and Washington Counties which are along the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers where Choctaw Treaties were negotiated in various Choctaw Treaties.The Choctaw in Oklahoma struggled to build a nation.
Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group.
They transferred the Choctaw Academy there and opened an academy for girls in the 1840s.
In the aftermath of the Dawes Act in the late 19th century, the US dissolved tribal governments in order to extinguish Indian land claims and admit the Indian and Oklahoma territories as a state in 1907.
The Choctaw coalesced as a people in the 17th century, and developed three distinct political and geographical divisions: eastern, western and southern.
These different groups sometimes created distinct, independent alliances with nearby European powers.